Organization of a computer network is impossible without a device such as a switch or similar network equipment. There are various network devices, with the help of which it becomes possible to form a local network, organize Internet access for several computers and other network switching tasks. The most popular of these devices are the hub, router, and switch. Not everyone knows how to configure this kind of device to make work more comfortable.
If the router (router) is used to connect and route different networks, then the hub and switch are used to combine different nodes into a single network. The advantageous difference between a switch (switch) and a hub (hub) is that in the first, data packets are transmitted strictly to the address of the specified node, and are not transmitted to all network devices. Thus, through the switch, direct address data transfer between two network nodes is realized, while the network resource is used as efficiently as possible. For this reason, at the moment, concentrators are practically never used anywhere; they have been supplanted by more efficient and secure switches.
So, a network switch, aka a switch or a switch (“switch”), is a type of network equipment that connects a certain number of nodes (computers) into a single segment of a computer network and performs packet transmission of information and data between the individual elements of this network.
The switch has several ports at its disposal – sockets that connect computers and other network nodes, equipment, etc. The connection between the port and the node is carried out using a crimped cable, the so-called twisted pair.
For a device such as an 8-port switch, this is the norm, but there are even more impressive numbers up to 48 and even 96. (FIG. 1) Under the OSI model, this device operates at the channel level, therefore, as a rule, it only combines other devices into one network segment, focusing on their identifying MAC addresses.
A standard switch cannot combine several separate networks. For routing at the network level, for example, for organizing Internet access on several computers, which is an example of including a local network in the global one, you need a router or a switch router.
Thus, in the OSI network hierarchy, the switch occupies an intermediate link between the hub and the router:
Hub – Physical layer. Broadcasts incoming data, duplicating them to all interfaces used. Switch – Link layer. Distributes data exclusively to the intended recipients. Router – Network layer. Connects various network segments.